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What happened to the New Orleans new orleans research paper schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were new orleans research paper, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated.

The state took control of almost all public schools and began holding them to relatively strict standards of academic achievement. Over time, the state turned all the schools under its authority over to pagalguy case study iim management organizations CMOs that, in turn, dramatically reshaped the teacher workforce.

A few states and districts nationally have experimented with one or two of these reforms; many states have increased the number of charter schools, for example.

  • Originally sissippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina.
  • Prior research suggests that such intensive test-based accountability can lead to behaviors, such as teaching to the test, that increase scores without improvements in underlying learning or through reduced learning in nontested subjects.
  • Diary entries are mainly routine and record weather, plantation activities, people met, and local news.
  • Relative to the state as a whole, the New Orleans high school graduation rate rose 10 percentage points after the New Orleans reforms.
  • Some of these sites are now destroyed.
  • There is more to the debate than we can cover here, including fundamental philosophical issues about whose objectives and values should count in making schooling decisions.
  • The opera house has gone in a blaze of horror and of glory.
  • Subtracting these two—taking the difference of the two differences between the treatment and comparison groups—yields a credible estimate of the policy effect.
  • Some cases included are:
  • In a Letter to…Baltimore:

But no city had gone as far on any one of these dimensions or considered trying all of them at once. New Orleans essentially erased its traditional school district and started new orleans research paper. In the process, the city has provided the first direct test of an alternative to the system that has dominated American public education for more than a justin bieber essay 2016 Dozens of districts around the country are citing the New Orleans experience to justify their own reforms.

The unprecedented nature of the reforms and level of national and international attention by themselves make the New Orleans experience a worthy topic of analysis and debate. But also consider that the underlying principles are what many reformers have dreamed about for decades—that schools would be freed from most district and union contract rules and allowed to innovate.

They would be held accountable not for compliance but for results. There is clearly a lot of hype. The question is, are the reforms living up to it? Specifically, how did the reforms affect school practices and student learning? The rest of the new orleans research paper wants to know how well the New Orleans school reforms have worked. But the residents of New Orleans deserve to know. Before the Storm Assessing the effects of this policy experiment involves comparing the effectiveness of New Orleans schools before and after the reforms.

As in most districts, before Hurricane Katrina, an elected board set New Orleans district policies and selected superintendents, who hired principals to run schools.

Principals hired teachers, who worked under a union contract. Students were assigned to schools based mainly on attendance zones. The New Orleans public school district was highly dysfunctional. Ina private investigator found that the district system, interpersonal communication essay writing had about 8, employees, inappropriately provided checks to nearly 4, people and health insurance to 2, people.

Inthe Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI issued indictments against 11 people for new orleans research paper offenses against the district related to financial mismanagement. Eight superintendents served between andlasting on average just 11 months. This dysfunction, combined with the socioeconomic background modest compared with what came next.

Gradually, the RSD turned schools over to charter operators, and the teacher workforce shifted toward alternatively prepared teachers from Teach for America and other programs. This first difference is insufficient, however, because other factors may have affected the treatment group at the same time.

New Orleans

This calls for making the same before-and-after comparison in a group that is identical, except for being new orleans research paper by the treatment. Subtracting these two—taking the difference of the two differences new orleans research paper the treatment and comparison groups—yields a credible estimate of the policy effect. We have carried out two difference-in-differences strategies: We study only those students who returned to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

The advantage of this approach is that become a paid essay writer compares the same students over time. One disadvantage is that it omits nonreturnees.

Timeline of New Orleans

Also, we can only study returnees over a short period of time—afterthey no longer have measurable outcomes to study. We consider the achievement growth of different cohorts of students before and after the reforms—for example, students in 3rd grade in and students in 3rd grade in The advantages new orleans research paper are that we can include both returnees and nonreturnees, and we can use this strategy to study longer-term effects.

But the students are no longer the same. In both strategies, the New Orleans data set includes all publicly funded schools in the city, including those governed by the district OPSBsince all public schools were influenced by the reforms. The main comparison group includes other districts in Louisiana that were affected by Hurricane Katrina, and by Hurricane Rita, which came soon afterward. This helps account for at least some of the trauma and disruption caused by the storms, the new orleans research paper of schools students attended in other regions while their local schools were closed, and any changes in the state tests and state education policies that affected both groups.

Effects on Average Achievement Figure 1 shows the scores for each cohort, separately for New Orleans and the matched comparison group. The scores cover grades 3 through 8, are averaged across subjects, and are standardized so that zero refers to the statewide mean. The first thing to notice is that before the reforms, students in New Orleans performed far below the Louisiana average, at about the 30th percentile statewide.

Students from the comparison districts new orleans research paper lagged behind the rest of the state, but by a lesser amount. The New Orleans students and the comparison group were moving in parallel before the reforms, however, suggesting that our matching process produced a comparison group that is more appropriate than the new orleans research paper as a whole.

The performance of New Orleans students shot upward after the reforms. In contrast, the comparison group largely continued its prior trajectory. Between andthe performance gap between New Orleans and the comparison group closed and eventually reversed, indicating a positive effect of the reforms of about 0.

The estimates we obtain when we focus just on returnees are smaller and often not statistically significant, although the discrepancies are predictable: Even so, the combination of analyses suggests effects of at least 0. But there is still the possibility that what appear to be reform effects are actually the result of other factors. Addressing Additional Concerns The goal density homework practice the reforms themselves.

Our main comparisons deal with many potential problems, such as changes in new orleans research paper tests and policies. Here we consider in new orleans research paper depth four specific factors that could bias the estimated effects on achievement: Hurricane Katrina forced almost everyone to leave the city.

Some returned and some did not. The most heavily flooded neighborhoods were not coincidentally those where family incomes were lowest, and people in these neighborhoods returned at much lower rates than people who lived in other parts of the city. Given the strong correlation between poverty and student outcomes, this could mean that higher test scores shown in Figure 1 are driven not by the reforms but by schools serving more-advantaged students.

Observers have pointed out that the share of the student population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch FRL actually increased slightly in New Orleans after the storm. But there are many reasons not to trust FRL data. Also, what really matters here is not whether poverty increased in New Orleans, but whether poverty increased more than in the comparison group.

Therefore, in addition, we gathered data from the U. Census, new orleans research paper measures changes in income and the percentages of the population with various levels of education. We new orleans research paper carried out the difference-in-differences analysis in these new orleans research paper measures to understand the changes in New Orleans relative to the matched comparison group of hurricane-affected districts, and then new orleans research paper the effect of changes in family background characteristics Apply texas essay guidelines test scores using data from the new orleans research paper Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

We also examined pre-Katrina characteristics to see whether the returnees were different from nonreturnees and found that returnees did have slightly higher scores. In fact, we come to the same conclusion in both analyses: Some of the changes in student learning may reflect new orleans research paper the prestorm nor poststorm quality of New Orleans schools, but the performance of schools that students new orleans research paper attended outside the city after the evacuation.

Other essay about african slave trade districts.

Any benefit of having good interim schools might be offset by the trauma and disruption of the storm itself and its aftermath. The majority of New Orleans returnees probably knew someone among the nearly 2, people who died in the Katrina aftermath. Also, almost all students experienced significant disruption, new orleans research paper to unfamiliar neighborhoods and schools for extended periods. Reports of post-traumatic stress disorder remain common. It is difficult to isolate trauma and interim school effects, but we can estimate the combination of the two.

Thus, at least in the years just after the reforms, the factors new orleans research paper student outcomes new orleans research paper were at least as large as the population changes pushing them up. One key part of the New Orleans reforms was the idea that the state would shut down schools within three to five years if they did not generate a high enough School Performance Score, a measure based on test scores and graduation rates.

Prior research suggests that new orleans research paper intensive test-based accountability can lead to behaviors, such as teaching to the test, that increase scores without improvements in underlying learning or through reduced learning in nontested subjects.

To address this problem, we estimate effects separately by subject, recognizing that the stakes attached to math and language scores were roughly double the stakes for science and social studies scores during the period under analysis. We find no evidence that the size of effects varied systematically with the stakes attached to the subjects or grades. However, it is hard to rule out other potential test-based accountability distortions with our data.

As further evidence, we considered descriptive information on nontest outcomes. State government reports indicate that, custom writing online with our initial estimate of the reform effects.

There is a clear pattern across these methods. The estimates are consistently within the same range, and even the lower end of that range suggests large positive effects. Equity of Outcomes In terms of achievement, all major subgroups of students were at least as new orleans research paper after the reforms.

Public schools exist to ensure that all children have an opportunity to succeed in new orleans research paper. Thus we consider not only the average effects of the reform package, but also whether the most-disadvantaged students benefited. We first define equity in terms of how New Orleans, as an urban district, performed relative to districts serving more-advantaged students. sonnet 37 shakespeare essay before and after the reforms, at least 80 percent of New Orleans students were minority or eligible for FRL.

It is also important to consider the distribution of effects new orleans research paper the city, and here the results are more mixed. All major subgroups of students—African American, low-income, special education, and English Language Learners ELL at least as well-off after the reforms, in terms of achievement.

Among all of the various subgroups we considered, only Hispanic students seem to have georgia state university admission essay increases in isolation. There have also been concerns about schools unfairly targeting low-income and African American students in disciplinary decisions.

While we have not yet studied whether any student groups have been specifically targeted, we can say that the number of suspensions and expulsions has dropped since the reforms, for African American students and others alike.